Constraints on Transport of Injured Victims after the Earthquake for Disaster Victims’ Evacuation Model Development: A Phenomenological Study


  • Muhammad Muhammad Graduate School of Mathematics and Applied Sciences, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia; Nursing Department of Aceh Health Polytechnic, Ministry of Health, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
  • Hajjul Kamil Department of Basic Nursing and Nursing Management, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
  • Muhammad Adlim Graduate School of Mathematics and Applied Sciences, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
  • Irwandi Irwandi STEM Research Center (STEM - id), Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia



Injured victims, Evacuation model, Earthquake disaster, Response plan


The big earthquake has an impact on the risk of injury to the victims. The wounded victim needed urgent medical assistance to survive. The effectiveness of this service depends heavily on the response speed of stakeholders. To increase the response rate, a detailed emergency response plan is needed. The study aims to identify restrictive factors in evacuating victims of post-earthquake injuries. This qualitative research has a phenomenological design. Participants in this study were 15 nurses who participated in the Disaster Victim Evacuation (DVE) process and who met the criteria with the purposive sampling technique. Data is collected through a deep interview (IDI) using open questions. Data analysis is done using the inductive content analysis method. Two themes contributed to the DVE process as an ERP, namely, 1) restriction of institutional support and 2) cancellation of evacuation routes. These findings have provided an overview of several factors that directly contributed to the implementation of the DVE process.


Download data is not yet available.


  1. Kemenkes RI. (2019). Indonesia Health Profile 2018, Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, Jakarta.
  2. Sasmita, N. R., Khairul, M., Sofyan, H., Kruba, R., Mardalena, S., Dahlawy, A., Apriliansyah, F., Muliadi, M., Saputra, D. C. E., Noviandy, T. R., and Watsiq Maula, A. (2023). Statistical Clustering Approach: Mapping Population Indicators Through Probabilistic Analysis in Aceh Province, Indonesia, Infolitika Journal of Data Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 63–72. doi:10.60084/ijds.v1i2.130.
  3. BNPB. (2020). Data Informasi Bencana Indonesia (DIBI), from, accessed 23-7-2022.
  4. Jena, R., Pradhan, B., Beydoun, G., Nizamuddin, Ardiansyah, Sofyan, H., and Affan, M. (2020). Integrated Model for Earthquake Risk Assessment Using Neural Network and Analytic Hierarchy Process: Aceh Province, Indonesia, Geoscience Frontiers, Vol. 11, No. 2, 613–634. doi:10.1016/j.gsf.2019.07.006.
  5. Akitomi, S., Koyama, A., Kokogawa, T., Maeda, Y., Kimura, R., Tamura, K., Hayashi, H., and Meguro, K. (2020). A Study on Disaster Medical Response during the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster Based on the Emergency Support Function – Nine Days at Iwate Prefecture from Hyperacute to Subacute Phase, Journal of Disaster Research, Vol. 15, No. 1, 41–52. doi:10.20965/jdr.2020.p0041.
  6. Farahani, R. Z., Lotfi, M. M., Baghaian, A., Ruiz, R., and Rezapour, S. (2020). Mass Casualty Management in Disaster Scene: A Systematic Review of OR&MS Research in Humanitarian Operations, European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier B.V., 787–819. doi:10.1016/j.ejor.2020.03.005.
  7. Na, H. S., and Banerjee, A. (2019). Agent-Based Discrete-Event Simulation Model for No-Notice Natural Disaster Evacuation Planning, Computers and Industrial Engineering, Vol. 129, No. January, 44–55. doi:10.1016/j.cie.2019.01.022.
  8. Sung, I., and Lee, T. (2016). Optimal Allocation of Emergency Medical Resources in a Mass Casualty Incident: Patient Prioritization by Column Generation, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 252, No. 2, 623–634. doi:10.1016/j.ejor.2016.01.028.
  9. Shiripour, S., and Mahdavi-Amiri, N. (2019). Optimal Distribution of the Injured in a Multi-Type Transportation Network with Damage-Dependent Travel Times: Two Metaheuristic Approaches, Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Vol. 68, No. October, 1–23. doi:10.1016/j.seps.2018.10.011.
  10. Elmhadhbi, L., Karray, M., Archimède, B., Otte, J. N., and Smith, B. (2022). Ontology-Driven Multicriteria Decision Support for Victim Evacuation, International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making, Vol. 21, No. 01, 243–272. doi:10.1142/S021962202150053X.
  11. Goniewicz, K., Misztal-okońska, P., Pawłowski, W., Burkle, F. M., Czerski, R., Hertelendy, A. J., and Goniewicz, M. (2020). Evacuation from Healthcare Facilities in Poland: Legal Preparedness and Preparation, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 17, No. 5, 1–9. doi:10.3390/ijerph17051779.
  12. Dean, M. D., and Nair, S. K. (2014). Mass Casualty Triage: Distribution of Victims to Multiple Hospitals Using the SAVE Model, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 238, No. 1, 363–373. doi:10.1016/j.ejor.2014.03.028.
  13. Campos, V., Bandeira, R., and Bandeira, A. (2012). A Method for Evacuation Route Planning in Disaster Situations, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 54, 503–512. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.768.
  14. Loke, A. Y., Wai, O., and Fung, M. (2014). Nurses ’ Competencies in Disaster Nursing : Implications for Curriculum Development and Public Health, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 3289–3303. doi:10.3390/ijerph110303289.
  15. Nilsson, J., Johansson, S., Nordström, G., and Wilde-Larsson, B. (2020). Development and Validation of the Ambulance Nurse Competence Scale, Journal of Emergency Nursing, Vol. 46, No. 1, 34–43. doi:10.1016/j.jen.2019.07.019.
  16. Brown, L. M., Hickling, E. J., and Frahm, K. (2010). Emergencies, Disasters, and Catastrophic Events: The Role of Rehabilitation Nurses in Preparedness, Response, and Recovery, Rehabilitation Nursing, Vol. 35, No. 6, 236–241. doi:10.1002/j.2048-7940.2010.tb00053.x.
  17. Reimer, A. P. (2020). Prehospital and Transport Nursing: The Next 50 Years, Journal of Emergency Nursing, Vol. 46, No. 1, 8–11. doi:10.1016/j.jen.2019.11.008.
  18. Sutisna, A. (2021). Metode Penelitian Kualitatif Bidang Pendidikan, UNJ Press, Jakarta.
  19. Umayah, A., Paristiowati, M., Dianhar, H., and Hasibuan, N. A. P. (2023). Augmented Reality and Student Learning: Analysis of Mental Models of Salt Hydrolysis at SMAN 51 Jakarta, Indonesia, Journal of Educational Management and Learning, Vol. 1, No. 1, 22–30. doi:10.60084/jeml.v1i1.53.
  20. Forsell, L., Forsberg, A., Kisch, A., and Rantala, A. (2020). Specialist Ambulance Nurses’ Perceptions of Nursing: A Phenomenographic Study, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 17, No. 14, 1–15. doi:10.3390/ijerph17145018.
  21. Nurdiani, N. (2014). Teknik Sampling Snowball dalam Penelitian Lapangan, ComTech: Computer, Mathematics and Engineering Applications, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1110. doi:10.21512/comtech.v5i2.2427.
  22. Robinson, O. C. (2014). Sampling in Interview-Based Qualitative Research: A Theoretical and Practical Guide, Qualitative Research in Psychology, Vol. 11, No. 1, 25–41. doi:10.1080/14780887.2013.801543.
  23. Muhammad, M., Kamil, H., Adlim, A., and Irwandi, I. (2022). Adjustment of In-Depth Interview and Focus Group Discussion Guidelines for Disaster Victims Evacuation Model Development with Corona Virus Disease 2019 Pandemic, Proceedings of International Conference on Multidiciplinary Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 197–206. doi:10.32672/pic-mr.v4i1.3769.
  24. Rachmawati, I. N. (2007). Pengumpulan Data Dalam Penelitian Kualitatif: Wawancara, Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia, Vol. 11 no 1, 35–40.
  25. SMR, S. M. du R., Reuter, P.-G., Chlo, B., and Lob, T. (2018). Specific Stretchers Enhance Rapid Extraction by Tactical Medical Support Teams in Mass Casualty Incidents, Injury, Vol. 50, No. 2, 358–364. doi:10.1016/j.injury.2018.12.012.
  26. Hoon Oh, B., Kim, K., Choi, H. L., and Hwang, I. (2017). Integer Linear Program Approach for Evacuation of Disaster Victims with Different Urgency Levels, IFAC-PapersOnLine, Vol. 50, No. 1, 15018–15023. doi:10.1016/j.ifacol.2017.08.2574.
  27. Chen, A. Y., and Yu, T. Y. (2016). Network Based Temporary Facility Location for the Emergency Medical Services considering the Disaster Induced Demand and the Transportation Infrastructure in Disaster Response, Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Vol. 91, 408–423. doi:10.1016/j.trb.2016.06.004.
  28. Hardani, Auliya, N. H., Andriani, H., Fardani, R. A., Ustiawaty, J., Utami, E. F., Sukmana, D. J., and Istiqomah, R. R. (2022). Buku Metode Penelitian Kualitatif & Kuantitatif, (H. Abadi, Ed.)LP2M UST Jogja (Cetakan I.), CV. Pustaka Ilmu Group Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta.
  29. Rawson, R. A., Rieckmann, T., Cousins, S., McCann, M., and Pearce, R. (2019). Patient Perceptions of Treatment with Medication Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder (MOUD) in the Vermont Hub-and-Spoke System, Preventive Medicine, Vol. 128, No. July, 105785. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.105785.
  30. Graneheim, U. H., and Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative Content Analysis in Nursing Research: Concepts, Procedures and Measures to Achieve Trustworthiness, Nurse Educ Today, Vol. 24. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.001.
  31. Hashimov, E. (2015). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook and The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers, Technical Communication Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 1, 109–112. doi:10.1080/10572252.2015.975966.
  32. Rofiah, C. (2022). Analisis Data Kualitatif: Manual Atau Dengan Aplikasi?, Develop, Vol. 6, No. 1, 33–46. doi:10.25139/dev.v6i2.4389.
  33. Widyastuti, R. H., Sahar, J., Rekawati, E., and Kekalih, A. (2023). Barriers and Support for Family Caregivers in Caring for Older Adults with Dementia : A Qualitative Study in Indonesia, Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, Vol. 13, No. August, 188–201. doi: 10.14710/nmjn.v13i2.55729.
  34. Feng, Y., Liu, T., Hu, Z., Wang, D., Cheng, T. C. E., and Yin, Y. (2021). Casualty Transport Scheduling considering Survival Probability and Injury Classification, Computers and Industrial Engineering, Vol. 161, No. February 2020, 107655. doi:10.1016/j.cie.2021.107655.
  35. Zahedi, A., Kargari, M., and Kashan, A. H. (2020). Multi-Objective Decision-Macking Model for Distribution Planning of Goods and Routing of Vehicles in Emergency, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Vol. 48, No. April, 101587. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101587.
  36. Peng, Y., and Hu, H. (2021). Assessment of Earthquake Casualties and Comparison of Accuracy of Five Injury Triage Methods: Evidence from a Retrospective Study, BMJ Open, Vol. 11, No. 10, 1–7. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-051802.
  37. Khajehaminian, M. R., Ardalan, A., Hosseini Boroujeni, S. M., Nejati, A., Ebadati, O. M., and Aghabagheri, M. (2020). Prioritized Criteria for Casualty Distribution Following Trauma-Related Mass Incidents; a Modified Delphi Study, Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 1, e47. doi:10.22037/aaem.v8i1.561.
  38. Caunhye, A. M., and Nie, X. (2018). A Stochastic Programming Model for Casualty Response Planning During Catastrophic Health Events, Transportation Science, Vol. 52, No. 2, 437–453. doi:10.1287/trsc.2017.0777.
  39. Me´trailler-Mermoud, J., Hugli, O., Carron, P.-N., Kottmann, A., Frochaux, V., Zen-Ruffinen, G., and Mathieu Pasquier. (2019). Avalanche Victims in Cardiac Arrest Are Unlikely to Survive despite Adherence to Medical Guidelines, Resuscitation, Vol. 141, No. April, 35–43. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2019.05.037.
  40. Tikani, H., and Setak, M. (2019). Ambulance Routing in Disaster Response Scenario considering Different Types of Ambulances and Semi Soft Time Windows, Journal of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 1, 95–128.
  41. Rabbani, M., Oladzad-Abbasabady, N., and Akbarian-Saravi, N. (2022). Ambulance Routing in Disaster Response Considering Variable Patient Condition: Nsga-Ii and Mopso Algorithms, Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1035–1062. doi:10.3934/jimo.2021007.
  42. Nikoo, N., Babaei, M., and Mohaymany, A. S. (2018). Emergency Transportation Network Design Problem: Identification and Evaluation of Disaster Response Routes, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Vol. 27, No. March 2017, 7–20. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.07.003.
  43. Mahiddin, N. A., Affandi, F. F. M., and Mohamad, Z. (2021). A Review on Mobility Models in Disaster Area Scenario, International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration, Vol. 8, No. 80, 848–873. doi:10.19101/IJATEE.2021.874084.
  44. Djalali, A., Khankeh, H., Öhlén, G., Castrén, M., and Kurland, L. (2011). Facilitators and Obstacles in Pre-Hospital Medical Response to Earthquakes: A Qualitative Study, Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, Vol. 19, 1–9. doi:10.1186/1757-7241-19-30.




How to Cite

Muhammad, M., Kamil, H., Adlim, M. and Irwandi, I. (2024) “Constraints on Transport of Injured Victims after the Earthquake for Disaster Victims’ Evacuation Model Development: A Phenomenological Study”, Heca Journal of Applied Sciences, 2(1), pp. 1–10. doi: 10.60084/hjas.v2i1.139.